Sughd Province is one of the four administrative divisions and one of the three provinces that make up Tajikistan. Centered in the historical Sogdiana, it is located in the northwest of the country, with an area of some 25,400 square kilometers and a population of 2,132,100 (2008 est.), up from 1,870,000 according to the 2000 census and 1,558,000 in 1989. It was founded in 1924 as part of Uzbek SSR and was become part of Tajik SSR in 1929 after efforts of Shirinsho Shotemur.
The province shares a border with the Jizakh, Namangan, Samarkand and Fergana provinces of Uzbekistan, and the Osh and Batken provinces of Kyrgyzstan. The Syr Darya river flows through it. It contains the Akash Massif and Mogoltau Massif Important Bird Areas. Soghd is separated from the rest of Tajikistan by the Gissar Range (passes may be closed in winter). The southern part of the province is the east-west valley of the upper Zarafshan River. North, over the Turkestan Range, is the Ferghana Valley. The province has 30% of Tajikistan's population and one-third of its arable land. It produces two thirds of the country's GDP.