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Monuments of Independence Park

Seljuk Beg The grandfather of Seljuk leaders Chagry Beg and Togrul Beg, identified in Ruhnama as the founder of the Seljuk Turkmen dynasty. Depicted as a wild-eyed figure, caressing his golden sword.

Oguz Han The legendary founder of the Turkmen people, here holding aloft a golden bow and three arrows.

Magtymguly The 18th-century Turkmen poet, wielding a quill pen.

Sultan Sanjar Seljuk leader, depicted holding a little model of his mausoleum in his right hand.

Georogly Legendary Turkmen warrior hero, here shown preparing to take his sword from its scabbard.

Alp Arslan and Malik Shah Seljuk rulers. The seated Alp Arslan is portrayed as a bellicose figure in chain mail, while the standing Malik Shah is more studious, his right hand clutching a rolled-up parchment.

Keymir Kor Legendary leader of the Ahal Tekkes in the first part of the 18th century, under whose guidance the Tekkes took control of the piedmont belt. Depicted as a proud man of noble bearing.

Zelili and Seydi Turkmen poets. Zelili is depicted as a rather emaciated figure, but Seydi is clearly made of stronger stuff.

Uzyn Hasan Leader of a tribal confederation known as Ak Goyunly ('White Sheep') which controlled in the 15th century large areas of present-day Turkey, Iran, Iraq and the South Caucasus. Here shown holding a standard featuring a sheep's head, portraying the alarm of an animal wondering where the rest of its body has gone.

Ertogrul Gazy Took his tribe from Khorasan to Asia Minor in the wake of the Mongol advances in Central Asia. His son Osman was to found what became the Ottoman Empire. Depicted as a chain-mailed man of action.

Bairam Han Ethnic Turkmen commander and poet of the Mughal Empire. Depicted as a thoughtful character, flicking through a book and perhaps pondering on his unusual taste in headgear, which looks like it belongs to the costume department of a 1970s' sci-fi series.

Mollanepes and Mataji I9th-century Turkmen poets. The seated Mollanepes looks up at the other poet, while patting the head of an invisible child with his right hand. Books and parchments piled on a table testify to the subjects' scholarliness.

Gara Yusup A leader of another tribal confederation of the 14th and 15th centuries, known as Gara Goyunly ('Black Sheep') whose lands were later to fall under the control of the Ak Goyunly, led by Uzyn Hasan. Gara Yusup too is depicted holding a banner bearing the head of a discomfited sheep.

Togrul Beg A Seljuk ruler, here depicted with crown and mitre.

Gorkut Ata Legendary spiritual leader, the subject of the epic Book of Gorkut, who is identified by President Niyazov as the central figure of the second Golden Age of the Turkmen people (after that, of Oguz Han), around the 6th century. Depicted as a wise elder, with long beard and staff.

Kemine Turkmen poet of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.