The Fergana Valley, the Khorezm Oasis and middle reaches of the Zeravshan have always been densely populated. But they have different settlement patterns. In the Fergana Valley, for example, the kishlaks stand in compact groups along the aryks (irrigation ditches) and irrigation canals, big and small roads and highways. In Khorezm, isolated small kishlaks are called kurganchis with a small number of peasant households.
The nomads lived in yurtas and kibitkas. The first consisted of a wooden frame and a rough felt covering and was easily assembled. Kibitka - the primitive winter dwelling of the nomad, it was made of mud, reeds and brushwood.
Both the yurtas and the kibitkas were heated by a fire burning in an uchak (hearth) in the centre of the dwelling. As a rule the very small number of household utensils were made by the nomads themselves out of local materials such as leather, wool, wood and reeds. Metal utensils, implements and other essential household items were bought at bazars.